In Peru, this species is known from two localities less than 1 km apart in the eastern Sierra del Divisor, Loreto, Peru. This species was recently found in the vicinity of Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil, extending the range over 100 km to the southeast. The elevation range of this species is roughly 200–400 m.
Natural history data on this species are limited. The two individuals found near the type locality in Peru were both foraging in leaf litter. In the Cruzeiro do Sul locality, one pair was found in a small but deep treehole, approximately 4 cm in diameter. Other individuals were found in the axils of a species of Marantaceae. These plants were reminiscent of large Heliconia, with a basal sheathing leaf about 6–8 inches long that extends from the ground. Several adults were found in such axils, which were always at ground level. Several tadpoles and one metamorph were also found in these axils. Two of these tadpoles, which were relatively late stage, seemed to have some white matter in their gut coils, which may have been egg yolk. However, other tadpole gut coils seemed to contain mainly detritus. Thus, this 6 species may be a facultative egg-feeder, similar to R. vanzolinii and R. imitator. The call of this species remains unknown.
Given the range extension into Brazil, this species should probably be listed as Least Concern (LC). The area where it occurs is practically uninhabited and naturally protected due to its remoteness.
Ranitomeya cyanovittata is sister to R. yavaricola, and is a member of the vanzolinii genetic group. This species was originally discovered by Diego Vasquez while he was participating in an expedition conducted by Pacific Stratus Energy S.A., which used helicopters to access the type locality.